Alitame is a high-intensity sweetener that emerged in the early 1980s as an alternative to sugar and other artificial sweeteners. Developed by Pfizer, this dipeptide sweetener is formed from the amino acids L-aspartic acid and D-alanine, as well as an amine derived from thietane. The development of alitame was inspired by the discovery of aspartame in 1965, leading to a search for similar compounds with a shared sweetness profile.
The chemical structure of alitame differs from that of aspartame and other sweeteners, contributing to its unique properties. It has found applications in a variety of food and beverage products due to its high potency, stability, and low caloric content. In terms of safety and regulations, alitame has been approved for use in some countries, while it remains unapproved or less common in others. The metabolism of alitame is another important aspect to consider, as its components are broken down differently within the human body compared to other sweeteners.
- Alitame is a high-intensity dipeptide sweetener developed by Pfizer, composed of two amino acids and an amine from thietane.
- Its unique chemical structure provides characteristics such as high potency, stability, and low caloric content for various food and beverage applications.
- The approval and usage of alitame vary by country, making it important to understand its metabolism, safety aspects, and applications in the context of regional regulations.
Alitame is a high-intensity, dipeptide sweetener that was developed in the early 1980s by Pfizer. Marketed in some countries under the brand name Aclame, this sweetener is formed from the amino acids L-aspartic acid and D-alanine, along with an amine derived from thietane. As a dipeptide, Alitame is composed of two amino acids joined by a peptide bond, and was discovered as a result of the search for compounds similar to aspartame – another well-known dipeptide sweetener.
The chemical name for Alitame is L-alpha-aspartyl-N-(2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-3-thietanyl)-D-alaninamide, and it has a CAS (Chemical Abstracts Service) number of 80863-62-3. Unlike most dipeptides, Alitame is notable for its intense sweetness. In fact, it is approximately 2000 times sweeter than sucrose, making it an attractive option for those seeking a low-calorie alternative to sugar.
In terms of metabolism, the aspartic acid component of Alitame is metabolized normally while the alanine amide is not hydrolyzed any further. Due to its unique composition and intense sweetness, Alitame has found applications in various food and beverage products as a sugar substitute.
In summary, Alitame is an intensely sweet, dipeptide-based artificial sweetener with a structure and functionality similar to aspartame. It provides a low-calorie alternative to traditional sugars and has widespread application in food and beverage industries.
Comparing Alitame with Other Sweeteners
Alitame is a high-intensity sweetener that is about 2000 times sweeter than sucrose (table sugar) and 10 times sweeter than aspartame. What sets it apart from other artificial sweeteners is its lack of aftertaste and greater stability under hot or acidic conditions.
Aspartame, another popular artificial sweetener, is approximately 200 times sweeter than sucrose. It is commonly found in diet sodas and other low-calorie products. Unfortunately, aspartame breaks down easily when exposed to heat, which limits its use in certain applications.
Sucralose is approximately 600 times sweeter than sucrose and highly stable under heat, making it suitable for cooking and baking. Neotame, a more recent addition to the family of high-intensity sweeteners, is about 8000 times sweeter than sucrose and retains its sweetness under a variety of conditions.
Saccharin is one of the oldest artificial sweeteners, about 300 times sweeter than sucrose. Although some may find its taste to be slightly bitter or metallic, it is often used in combination with other sweeteners to improve the overall taste profile.
Acesulfame potassium (also known as acesulfame K or Ace-K) is another low-calorie sweetener, 200 times sweeter than sucrose. It is stable under heat, making it a popular choice for various food and beverage applications. Cyclamate, another artificial sweetener, is 30 to 50 times sweeter than sucrose and was widely used before concerns about its safety led to its ban in the United States.
Lactitol is a sugar alcohol that is less sweet than sugar, providing about 40% of its sweetness. It is often used in sugar-free candies and is less likely to cause gastrointestinal side effects compared to other sugar alcohols. Thaumatin, a natural sweetener derived from the African katemfe fruit, is an incredible 2000 to 3000 times sweeter than sucrose but is used mainly as a flavor enhancer rather than a primary sweetening agent.
In conclusion, the variety of artificial sweeteners and alternative sugar options on the market today allows for customization based on taste preferences, stability requirements, and caloric restrictions. Alitame, with its impressive sweetness and stability, holds a strong position among these high-intensity sweeteners.
Chemical Structure and Properties
Alitame is an artificial sweetener comprised of aspartic acid and two amino acids, L-aspartic acid and D-alanine. As a dipeptide sweetener, it was developed by Pfizer in the early 1980s and is marketed under the brand name Aclame® in some countries. The compound’s chemical formula is C14H25N3O4S, and its molecular weight is 331.43 g/mol.
The chemical structure of alitame is unique due to the presence of a novel C-terminal amide moiety. This moiety consists of a 2,2,4,4-tetramethyl-3-thietanyl group, which is a sulfur derivative that contributes to the sweetening properties of the compound. Alitame is approximately 2000 times sweeter than sucrose, yet it does not possess the bitter or metallic qualities often associated with some high-intensity sweeteners.
In terms of its physicochemical properties, alitame is an odorless, white crystalline powder. Its solubility mainly lies in polar solvents, making it compatible with a wide range of food and beverage applications. While it is non-hygroscopic and does not readily absorb water, it is stable under common storage conditions and hence resistant to degradation.
The steric and lipophilic properties of alitame are influenced by the presence of the sulfur-containing tetramethyl group. This group is responsible for enhancing the molecule’s lipophilicity, which governs its taste profile and interactions with taste receptors.
In summary, alitame is a potent artificial sweetener owing its sweetness to the unique combination of aspartic acid, amino acids, and the sulfur-derived group. Its chemical stability and solubility make it a versatile option for use in various food and beverage formulations.
Alitame is an aspartic acid-containing dipeptide sweetener, which was developed by Pfizer in the early 1980s. It is marketed in some countries under the brand name Aclame and is known for being 2000 times sweeter than sucrose without the bitter or metallic qualities of high-intensity sweeteners.
The metabolism of alitame occurs primarily through hydrolysis, which is the breaking down of the dipeptide molecule into its individual amino acid components. The two amino acids found in alitame are L-aspartic acid and D-alanine.
L-aspartic acid is an essential amino acid involved in various metabolic processes within the body. It plays a role in the synthesis of proteins, serving as a building block for other amino acids, and also functions as a neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. As it is part of alitame’s composition, our body can metabolize it without any issues.
D-alanine is another amino acid found in alitame that the human body can also metabolize. Although it is not as well-known as L-aspartic acid, it is still an important nutrient that aids in the proper functioning of various systems within the body.
One aspect that differentiates alitame from another sweetener, aspartame, is the lack of phenylalanine in its composition. Phenylalanine is an essential amino acid found in aspartame that some individuals, specifically those with the genetic disorder phenylketonuria, cannot metabolize properly. This condition leads to a buildup of phenylalanine in the bloodstream, which can cause brain damage and other severe health issues. As a result, alitame is a safer alternative for those people who cannot tolerate aspartame due to phenylketonuria.
In summary, alitame is metabolized through hydrolysis and broken down into the two amino acids L-aspartic acid and D-alanine. Both of these amino acids can be safely metabolized by the human body. Alitame’s lack of phenylalanine makes it a suitable sweetener for individuals with phenylketonuria who need to avoid aspartame.
Applications and Uses
Alitame is a high-intensity sweetener derived from the amino acids L-aspartic acid and D-alanine, and an amine derived from thietane. It serves as an alternative to sugar in various food and beverage applications due to its intense sweetness, which is estimated to be approximately 2000 times that of sucrose.
In the realm of foods, alitame can be utilized in a wide range of products where sweetness is desired. Due to its excellent stability at high temperatures, the sweetener is suitable for use in baking and cooking. This thermal stability provides versatility in incorporating alitame into culinary dishes without worrying about a loss of sweetness during the cooking process.
Moreover, alitame can be employed as a sweetening agent in various beverages, including soft drinks. However, it’s important to note that during long-term storage, some soft drinks sweetened with alitame may develop an off-taste. Despite this, alitame remains a popular choice for those seeking a low-calorie and high-intensity sweetener.
In conclusion, alitame presents numerous potential applications across a broad range of foods and beverages. Its high intensity, low-calorie profile, and heat stability make it an attractive option for numerous culinary applications, from baking to beverage preparation.
Safety and Regulations
Alitame is a second-generation dipeptide sweetener, 2000 times sweeter than sucrose and developed to be a potential alternative to other high-intensity sweeteners without the bitter or metallic qualities. It is composed of l-aspartic acid, d-alanine, and a novel C-terminal amide moiety.
Regarding safety, extensive animal and human studies have supported the safe use of alitame, and the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) reviewed safety data on alitame in 2002. The committee found no evidence that alitame is carcinogenic or presents reproductive toxicity concerns.
Alitame has an Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) value determined by JECFA, which is the amount of a substance that can be safely consumed daily over a lifetime without risk. The ADI is calculated based on body weight to determine safe consumption levels for individuals.
In terms of regulations, alitame has been approved for use in a range of foods and beverages in countries such as Australia, Chile, Colombia, Indonesia, New Zealand, Mexico, and the People’s Republic of China. However, it is essential to note that the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has not yet approved alitame for use as a sweetener.
In conclusion, alitame is a high-intensity sweetener that has undergone extensive safety testing and has been deemed safe for consumption in multiple countries. However, it is not currently approved for use in the United States by the FDA.
Alitame is an artificial sweetener developed from amino acids and is 2000 times sweeter than sucrose. It has been approved for use in various countries around the world due to its low-calorie content and strong sweetening properties.
In Australia and New Zealand, alitame has been approved for use in a range of food and beverage products. These two countries have clear regulations in place regarding its usage, ensuring that the sweetener meets strict safety and quality standards.
Mexico has also approved alitame for use within its borders. Similar to Australia and New Zealand, Mexico has regulations in place to ensure the safe use of this artificial sweetener in various food products.
In China, alitame has been authorized for use in the food industry. Approval in this country reflects a broader trend of embracing low-calorie sweeteners as healthier alternatives to sugar.
Alitame has also received approval in Columbia, where it is used as a low-calorie sweetening option in foods and beverages.
At this time, alitame has not yet been approved for use in the United States, the European Union, or Canada. However, efforts are ongoing to seek approval in these regions, as well as in Brazil and other countries.
Maintaining a confident, knowledgeable, neutral, and clear tone of voice, it is evident that alitame has been approved as a low-calorie sweetener in various regions across the globe, including Australia, New Zealand, Mexico, China, and Columbia.
Alitame and Health
Alitame is a synthetic, high-intensity sweetener that was developed by Pfizer in the early 1980s. It is formed from the amino acids L-aspartic acid and D-alanine, along with an amine derived from thietane. With a sweetness level that is up to 2,000 times that of table sugar, alitame is part of the classification of high-intensity sweeteners, which are known for their extremely sweet taste.
One of the noteworthy benefits of alitame is its noncariogenic property, meaning it does not contribute to the development of dental caries or tooth decay. Due to its synthetic nature, it does not provide an environment suitable for the growth of bacteria that can cause dental issues.
As for the sensory aspect, alitame exhibits a similar taste profile to other sweeteners and does not leave an unpleasant aftertaste, making it a popular choice for various food and beverage formulations.
In terms of its effects on blood sugar levels and diabetes, alitame has a negligible impact on the glycemic index, making it a suitable choice for individuals with diabetes who need to monitor their sugar intake. Additionally, human studies have observed that oral intake of alitame does not result in significant changes in blood sugar levels.
Alitame is rapidly absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract, metabolized, and excreted from the body. The aspartic acid component is metabolized normally, while the alanine amide experiences minimal metabolic changes. These properties make alitame safe for human consumption, although it may not necessarily contribute to weight loss or obesity management.
When it comes to maillard reactions, which involve the chemical breakdown between sugar molecules and amino acids, alitame’s structure allows it to remain stable and avoid the formation of potentially harmful byproducts. This stability is an added advantage in terms of shelf life and food formulation.
It is essential to note that while alitame appears to be safe for human consumption, the same cannot be said for dogs. Dogs may experience adverse reactions to high-intensity sweeteners, so it is critical to ensure pet food does not contain alitame or other similar sweeteners.
In conclusion, alitame possesses many beneficial properties, such as noncariogenic properties and its negligible impact on the glycemic index, that make it a viable option for individuals seeking a synthetic sweetener. However, it is essential to use caution with alitame consumption for pets, as it may be harmful to their health.
History and Development
Alitame is an aspartic acid-containing dipeptide sweetener that was developed by Pfizer Central Research in the early 1980s. The unexpected discovery of aspartame in 1965 led to a search for similar compounds that shared its sweetness, eventually resulting in the development of alitame as a second-generation dipeptide sweetener.
Being an amino acid-based sweetener, alitame is formed from the amino acids L-aspartic acid and D-alanine with a novel amide moiety (formed from 2,2,4,4-tetramethylthienanylamine). This unique amide group gives alitame superior stability under a variety of conditions compared to other sweeteners.
In the development process, Pfizer partnered with Danisco, a leading food ingredient manufacturer, to market alitame under the brand name Aclame. The sweetener was designed to be a high-intensity alternative to table sugar, offering a sweetness profile that is approximately 2000 times sweeter than sucrose.
To obtain regulatory approval, rigorous testing and evaluation were conducted to ensure the safety and efficacy of alitame as a sweetener. It has an E number, which is a code for food additives in the European Union, and limited approval in some countries. Although the FDA has not yet approved alitame for sale in the United States, it is currently marketed in other countries.
Throughout the development process, the primary goal was to create a versatile and safe sweetening alternative to traditional table sugar, catering to a growing demand for low-calorie, sugar-free products. Today, alitame is used in a range of food and beverage applications, including baked goods, confectionery, and dairy products.
Other Second-Generation Di-Dpeptide Sweeteners
Alitame is a second-generation dipeptide sweetener that has become an alternative to first-generation sweeteners like saccharin, cyclamate, and aspartame. Second-generation dipeptide sweeteners were developed to address some concerns and limitations associated with their predecessors. These sweeteners offer an improved taste profile and potentially less adverse health effects.
One major advantage of second-generation dipeptide sweeteners is their stability. Due to their chemical structure, they have a longer half-life compared to first-generation sweeteners. This ensures that they maintain their sweetness for an extended period during storage and under various temperature and acidity conditions. Such stability makes them ideal for use in a wide range of food and beverage products.
Some other examples of second-generation dipeptide sweeteners include neotame and acesulfame-K. Neotame, which is derived from aspartame, is known for its extreme sweetness – it is approximately 7,000 to 13,000 times sweeter than regular sugar. Acesulfame-K, on the other hand, is about 200 times sweeter than sugar and is often combined with other sweeteners to achieve a more sugar-like taste.
It is crucial to note that while these sweeteners are approved for consumption by regulatory authorities such as the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), their breakdown products and potential health effects are still a subject of ongoing research and discussion. As a consumer, staying informed about any new developments in the safety and metabolic effects of these sweeteners is essential.
Alitame is a dipeptide sweetener containing aspartic acid, developed by Pfizer in the early 1980s1. It is created from the amino acids l-aspartic acid and d-alanine with an amide moiety, stemming from 2,2,4,4-tetramethylthienanylamine2. This specific amide group provides alitame with superior stability under a variety of conditions2.
Also known under the brand name Aclame, alitame is an amino acid-based sweetener3 that is approximately 2,000 times sweeter than sucrose (table sugar), 12 times sweeter than aspartame, and six times sweeter than saccharin4. It is noted for its clean, sweet taste without any unpleasant aftertaste3.
In summary, the information provided in the sources mentioned demonstrates that alitame is a dipeptide sweetener that originated from Pfizer and offers a highly sweet alternative to other sweeteners. It maintains stability under various conditions, presenting a desirable option for those seeking a sweet taste without the unpleasant aftertaste commonly encountered in other artificial sweeteners.
Frequently Asked Questions
What are the common side effects of alitame?
There is limited information available regarding the side effects of alitame. The Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) reviewed safety data on alitame in 2002 and concluded that there was no evidence that alitame is carcinogenic. It is important to note that individuals may react differently to different sweeteners, so it is recommended to monitor your personal tolerance.
How does alitame compare to sucrose in terms of sweetness?
Alitame is a high potency artificial sweetener, with a sweetness potency 2000 times greater than that of sucrose (table sugar). Due to its intense sweetness, it is used in much smaller quantities than sucrose.
Is alitame suitable for cooking and baking?
Alitame’s suitability for cooking and baking may depend on the specific recipe and desired taste. Its high sweetness potency may make it difficult to control sweetness levels in certain dishes. Experimenting with different amounts and combinations of sweeteners may yield the best results.
Can you list some advantages and disadvantages of alitame?
Advantages of alitame include its high sweetness potency, which allows for minimal use in products, and it does not have the bitter or metallic qualities of some other high-intensity sweeteners. Disadvantages include potential difficulty in controlling sweetness levels in recipes due to its extreme sweetness, and limited availability in the market as it is not as widely used as other sweeteners like aspartame or sucralose.
What are the typical uses of alitame?
Alitame is typically used as an artificial sweetener in various food and beverage products, such as soft drinks, candy, chewing gum, and dairy products. However, it is not as common as other sweeteners like aspartame or sucralose.
Which products commonly contain alitame?
As alitame is not as widely used as some other artificial sweeteners, there may not be many products in the market that contain it. However, it can still be found in some products, such as soft drinks, candy, chewing gum, and dairy products. Checking product labels for ingredients is the best way to identify if alitame is present in a specific product.
“Alitame – an overview | ScienceDirect Topics.” https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/agricultural-and-biological-sciences/alitame. ↩ ↩2
“Alitame sources, health risks – Natural Pedia Com.” http://www.naturalpedia.com/alitame-sources-health-risks.html. ↩ ↩2
“Alitame Excipient | Uses, Suppliers, and Specifications.” https://www.pharmacompass.com/pharma-excipients/alitame. ↩